Understanding The Different Types of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that forms in the lining of the lungs, abdomen, or heart. The condition is due to asbestos and has no known cure and has a very poor prognosis. A Mesothelioma lawyer from Williams Kherkher reveals that this type of cancer develops slowly and will not show symptoms until it has developed in the body. In this article, we shall discuss the different types of mesothelioma.

Type According to Location

As to location, there are three types of meosothelioma namely pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial. In pleural mesothelioma, the asbestos fibers start in the tissues that cover the lungs. Its signs and symptoms include:

  • Chest pain under the rib cage
  • Painful coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unusual lumps of tissue under the skin of the chest
  • Unexplained weight loss

Peritoneal mesothelioma takes place in the tissues of the abdomen. Its signs and symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Lumps of tissue in the abdomen
  • Unexplained weight loss

Pericardial mesothelioma is a rare cancer caused by asbestos fibers getting lodged in the pericardium, the lining around the heart cavity. Most common symptoms include heart attack, nausea, pain in the chest, and shortness of breath

According To Cell Type

Mesothelioma can also be characterized according to the type of cell that makes up the tumor. They are classified into three types which are epithelial, sarcomatoid, and biphasic. The most common cell type accounting for 50 – 75 percent of all diagnosed cases yearly is epithelial mesothelioma. They are uniform in shape, has an elongated pattern, and are adeonocarcinomas. They are easily distinguishable when viewed under high magnification.

Sarcomatoid mesothelioma accounts for 7 to 20% of cases diagnosed yearly. They arise from supportive structures such as muscles and bones.

Finally, biphastic mesothelioma is a combination of epithelial and sarcomatoid cell types. Treatment options may vary but sarcomatoid types are more difficult to treat as it involves surrounding tissues.

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What Are The Liabilities of Airline Companies In Aviation Accidents?

Compared to buses or ships, airplanes have given passengers a more convenient means of transportation. For this reason, many people have opted for this mode in getting to their destination. But while it is convenient and fast, traveling on an airplane also pose potential risks to passengers. Houston personal injury attorneys of William Kherkher will tell you that due to the height and speed involved in aviation accidents, they are more dangerous and devastating than other vehicle accidents.

According to the website of LaMarca Law Group, PC, there are different kinds of aviation accidents that are often fatal and result to death. While there are different factors that could have contributed to the accident, the liability is often a big question. Whoever will be deemed responsible for the crash can be held accountable for the following kinds of liabilities:

Civil Liability

Article 106 of the Civil Aviation Act encompasses national air transportation and is applicable to domestic flights. Those not covered by the Act shall be under the jurisdiction of the Warsaw Convention 1929 and the Hague Protocol of 1955. In cases not covered by the said conventions, obligations and trade law principles are applicable.

Civil liabilities of airline companies can either be limited or unlimited. In principle, the liability of carriers is limited. Under the Montreal Protocol of Turkey, the liability of carriers is limited to 16,600 special drawing rights. It becomes unlimited under the following conditions:

  • There was no flight ticket issued or flight ticket is not issued as required
  • Damage was a result of intentional, reckless, or negligent actions of the carrier or its employees

Criminal Liability

If the accident caused death or injury to passengers, certain provisions of the Criminal Code shall be applied. If the crash killed some or all of the passengers, the liable individuals shall be prosecuted ex officio with a charge of negligent manslaughter. Being legal entities, the legal representatives can also be charged.

If the accident caused bodily injury, the responsible individuals will be charged after the filing of a complaint by the injured parties. If the case involves conscious negligence, the prosecution will be ex officio.

Who Can File?

In case of death, the relatives of the passenger may file a case against the airline company and its employees. For claims involving bodily injuries, only the injured party can recover damages. They must prove the occurrence of the accident and the causation between the damages and the accident. Under related laws, the accident must have happened either in the aircraft or during boarding or alighting. The statute of limitations of aviation accidents is two years from the date the aircraft landed or it was scheduled to land. In case of death, recoverable damages include:

  • Treatment and funeral expenses, damages for inability to work and compensation for material damages
  • Compensation for immaterial damages for emotional distress following the death of the passenger

In case of injury, the injured passenger can collect compensation for material (cost of treatment and loss of work) and compensation for immaterial damages.

In terms of liability in international flights, the rights of injured parties are guaranteed by international conventions such as the Montreal Convention, Warsaw Convention, and Hague Protocol.

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